A Brief History Of Artificial Intelligence

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AI currently encloses a huge variety of subfields, ranging from general to the specific, such as playing chess, providing mathematical theorems, writing poetry, driving cars, and even diagnosing diseases. It is not a term that arises in this few years but is being seeded in mid-nineties.

  • Year 1943 :- First work generally recognized as AI was done by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts. They proposed a model of artificial neurons in which neurons are characterized as being in “on” or “off” state. For example, they showed that ant computable function could be computed by some network of connected neurons and that all logical connectives could be implemented in by sample net structures.
Neuron Representation
  • Year 1949:- Donald Hebb demonstrated a simple updating rule of modifying the connection strengths between neurons. His rule, now called Hebbian Technology
  • Year 1950:-First neural network computer was developed by students at Harvard, Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmonds . Alan Turing provided most influential. He publishes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”. He introduces Turing Tests, machine learning genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning. The Turing test, used to check machine ability to exhibit intelligence behavior to human intelligent.
Turing Test
  • Year 1956:- John McCarthy present his definition of Artificial Intelligence and defined Lisp, which was to become dominant AI programming language for next 30 years.
  • Year 1959:-Nathaniel Rachester and his colleagues produced some of the first AI programs. Herbert Geleenter constructed the “Geometry Theorem Prover” , which was able to prove theorems that many students of mathematics find quite tricky.
  • Year 1966:-First chatterbot, ELIZA, was developed by Joseph Weizenbaum. ELIZA could carry out conversations that were so realistic that users occasionally were fooled into thinking they were communicating with a human being and not a program. But in fact, ELIZA had no idea what she was talking about. She simply gave a canned response or repeated back what was said to her, rephrasing her response with a few grammar rules.
  • Year 1967:-Waseda University, Japan, initiated the WABOT project in 1967 and ended in 1972. It was the world first full scale intelligent humanoid robot. It could walk with lower limbs and grip and transport an object with hands.
  • Year 1980:-A form of AI program called “expert system” was adopted by corporation around the world. For example, R1 began operating at Digital Equipment Corporation. It helped configure orders for new computer systems and was able to save $40 million in years.
  • Year 1981:- Japanese announced the “Fifth Generation” project. Their main objective were to write programs and build machine that could carry on conversation , language translation, interpret picture, etc. Others countries soon followed, UK “Alvey Project”, US formed “MCC” to fund large scale projects in AI and IT.
  • Year 1997:- Deep Blue become first computer chess playing system to beat world chess champion, Garry Kasparov. The system was able to process 200,000,000 moves per second.
  • Year 2002:- For the First time, AI entered home in the form of Roomba, a vacuum cleaner.
Roomba Vacuum Cleaner
  • Year 2005:- Stanford robot win DARPA Grand challenge by driving autonomously for 131 miles.
  • Year 2011 to present :- Access to large amount of data, cheaper and faster computer advanced machine learning techniques were applied. Affordable graphical processing units from the gaming industry have enabled neural networks to be trained using big data. Layering these networks mimics how humans learn to recognize and categorize simple patterns into complex patterns. This software is being applied in automated facial and object detection and recognition as well as medical image diagnostics, financial patterns, and governance regulations.
Read More About: Theory of Computation, DSA
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