Introduction to web technology


What is Web Technology?

Web technology refers to the tools and software used to develop and operate web-based applications and services. This includes web development languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as server-side technologies such as PHP, Node.js, and Ruby on Rails. The goal of web technology is to create interactive, dynamic, and secure web applications that can be accessed by users from anywhere in the world. It integrates multiple markup and programming languages to create functional web applications. These languages can be used on either the client side or the server side. Some examples of web technology include HTML, CSS, Javascript, PHP, MYSQL, and Content Management Systems (CMS).


The basic building blocks are HTML and CSS, and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a standard markup language used to create and structure content for the World Wide Web. Here are some main points about HTML:

  1. Structure: HTML uses a set of tags to define the structure of a web page. Tags are enclosed in angle brackets, and some common tags include<html>,<head>, <body>,<p>, and <img>
  2. Attributes: Attributes are written as name-value pairs within the opening tag of an element, such as src for the source of an image. 
  3. Document: An HTML document usually includes a <!DOCTYPE html> declaration, a <html> tag that contains a <head> section with metadata, and a <body> section with the main content.

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Accordingly, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation and layout of HTML documents. Here are some main points about CSS: 

  1. Selectors: CSS uses selectors to target HTML elements and apply styles to them which include element selectors, class selectors, and ID selectors.  
  2. Declarations: CSS declarations are used to define the style properties of an HTML element, such as font size, color, and margin, and can be written as name-value pairs within curly braces. 
  3. CSS specifies the layout of HTML elements using a box model, which includes content, padding, borders, and margins.
  4. CSS also includes media queries, which allow developers to specify different styles for different device sizes or media types, such as print or screen.

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JavaScript is an essential tool for web development, allowing developers to create interactive and engaging web pages that respond to user actions and input. JavaScript is a programming language that allows developers to add interactivity, animations, and dynamic behavior to web pages. JavaScript can be used to perform form validation on the client side, which can provide immediate feedback to the user and prevent unnecessary server requests. Here are some main points about Javascript:

  1.  Client-side server: JavaScript code runs on the client side (i.e. in the user’s web browser), allowing for real-time updates and responses to user actions.
  2.  Server-side server: JavaScript can also be used for server-side scripting, using platforms such as Node.js, which allows for building scalable and high-performance web applications.
  3.  DOM:  JavaScript can manipulate the Document Object Model (DOM) of an HTML document, allowing developers to add, remove, and modify HTML elements on the fly. 
  4.  Libraries and frameworks: JavaScript has many popular libraries and frameworks, such as jQuery, React, and Angular, that simplify the development of complex web applications.

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AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a technique used in web development that allows for the updating of content on a web page without having to reload the entire page. This is achieved by using a combination of JavaScript and other web technologies to communicate with a server in the background, and then update the web page with the new data that was received from the server. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a markup language that is used to store and transport data. XML is often used as the data format for communication between the server and the client in an AJAX application, although other data formats like JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) are also commonly used. In summary, AJAX is a technique used to update web content dynamically without a page refresh, while XML is a markup language where data can be stored in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

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About AJAX:


PHP is a powerful and versatile server-side scripting language that is widely used in web development for its flexibility, and ease of use. PHP is compatible with many web servers, including Apache, Nginx, and Microsoft IIS. It also supports a wide range of databases, including MYSQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server. By using PHP in combination with HTML and CSS, developers can create dynamic and engaging web experiences for users. PHP is different from other programming languages:

  1. Purpose: PHP was designed specifically for web development, while other programming languages, such as Python and Java, can be used for a wide range of applications.
  2. PHP is platform-independent: PHP code can run on multiple platforms, including Windows, Mac, and Linux. This makes it a versatile choice for web development projects.
  3. PHP is scalable: PHP is able to handle high-traffic websites with ease, making it a popular choice for large-scale web applications.

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Web Technology has transformed the way we interact with the internet, and has had a great impact on our daily lives. From basic HTML and CSS to more advanced technologies like JavaScript and PHP, web development has become an essential skill for businesses and individuals alike. Therefore, in a short period of time, this course has given us a lot of information that is helpful for efficient learning.